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Economics B.A Syllabus for KKHSOU

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Economics B.A Syllabus for KKHSOU: Economics a multi stream subject. It has importance in all science, arts and commerce stream. Economics has a great reputation on KKHSOU. Its a great opportunity to take a degree on KKHSOU in Economics. So download the syllabus for Economics at KKHSOU. Analyzing the syllabus before taking the course is very important because it gives you a batter understanding about  the course. Get the degree syllabus for KKHSOU here for free.

Economics B.A Syllabus for KKHSOU

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Economics B.A Syllabus for First Semester

 

COURSE 1: INTRODUCTION TO ECONOMIC THEORY

UNIT 1: AN INTRODUCTION TO ECONOMICS

Nature and Scope of Economics; Choice as an Economic Problem; Stock and Flow Variables; Micro Economics and Macro Economics Approaches: Scope and Subject Matter
UNIT 2: THE MARKET MECHANISM

Demand-Supply Framework, Concept of Equilibrium and Market Equilibrium; Static

Analysis, Comparative Static Analysis and Dynamic Analysis

UNIT 3: INTRODUCTION TO DEMAND

The idea of Demand; The Demand Curve: Movement along a demand curve and Shift in the

Demand Curve; Elaticity of Demand – Price, Income and Cro

UNIT 4: CO SUMER BEHAVIOUR: CARDINAL APPROACH

Utility – Cardinal and Ordinal Approaches; Law of Diminishing Marginal Utility; Law of

Equi-Marginal Utility; Consumer’s Surplus

UNIT 5: CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR: ORDINAL APPROACH

Indifference Curve; Consumer’s Equilibrium; Price, Income & Substitution Effects; Giffen

Goods

UNIT 6: CONCEPTS OF REVENUE

Concepts of Total Revenue, Average Revenue and Marginal Revenue; Relationship between

AR and MR Curves; Relationship between TR, AR, MR and Price Elasticity.

UNIT 7: THEORY OF PRODUCTION

Production Decisions; Production Function; Iso-Quant; Factor Substitution; Law of Variable Proportions; Returns to Scale; Equilibrium of The Firm with respect to Choice of Factor Combination; Expansion Path.
UNIT 8: COST OF PRODUCTION AND COST CURVES

Different Concepts of Costs and their Interrelation; Cost Curves and their Inter-Relationship; Short-run and Long-run Cost Curves
UNIT 9: EQUILIBRIUM OF FIRM

Conditions of Firm’s Equilibrium; Break-Even Point; Equilibrium of Industry; Incorporating

Normal Profit into Average Cost Prices
UNIT 10: MARKET STRUCTURE: PERFECT COMPETITION

Types of Market – Perfect and Imperfect Markets; Equilibrium of a Firm and Industry under

Perfect Competition in the Short-run and in the Long-run

UNIT 11: MARKET STRUCTURE: MONOPOLY

Meaning and Characteristics; Equilibrium under Monopoly; Comparison of Equilibrium under Monopoly and Perfect Competition
UNIT 12: MARKET STRUCTURE: MONOPOLISTIC COMPETITION

Monopolistic Competition: Meaning and Characteristics; Product Differentiation and Selling

Cost (Concepts Only); Concepts of Oligopoly and Duopoly

UNIT 13: EQUILIBRIUM UNDER MONOPOLISTIC COMPETITION

Equilibrium under Monopolistic Competition: Short-run and Long-run; Product and Group

Equilibrium; Excess Capacity

UNIT 14: BASIC CONCEPTS OF NATIONAL INCOME

Concepts: Gross Domestic Product, Gross National Product, Net National Product at factor co t and market price, National Income at con tant and market price, Per Capita Income, Per onal Income, Di po able Income; Importance of National Income,
UNIT 15: NATIONAL INCOME ACCOUNTING AND CIRCULAR FLOW OF INCOME
Methods of National Income Measurement, Difficulties in Measurement of National Income, circular Flow of National Income in a two sector model.

Economics B.A Syllabus for Second Semester

 

COURSE 2: INTRODUCTION TO ECONOMIC THEORY – II

UNIT 1: THEORY OF DISTRIBUTION

Personal and Functional Distribution; Marginal Physical Productivity, Marginal Revenue

Product and Value of Marginal Product; Concept of Marginal and Average Factor Cost

UNIT 2:WAGES

Meaning, Nominal Wages vs. Real Wages; Marginal Productivity Theory of Determination of

Factor Prices; Wages and Collective Bargaining

UNIT3:RENT

Rent; Ricardian Theory of Rent; Criticism of Ricardian Theory; Marshallian Producer’s

Surplus; Quasi Rent; Relation between Rent and Price.

UNIT 4: PROFIT

Profits: Nature -Uncertainty Theory of Profit; Innovation as a Source of Profit
UNIT 5: OUTPUT AND EMPLOYMENT: CLASSICAL THEORY

Basic Assumptions, Classical Theory of Income, Output and Employment; Keynes’ criticism of the classical theory
UNIT 6: THE KEYNESIAN THEORY OF EMPLOYMENT

Aggregate Demand and Aggregate Supply; The Principle of Effective Demand; Determination of Equilibrium Level of Income: Aggregate Expenditure Output Identity, Planned Saving- Planned Investment Equality: Criticisms
UNIT 7: DETERMINATION OF INTEREST RATE: KEYNESIAN APPROACH

Interest Rate as a Monetary Phenomenon, Demand for Money: Transaction, Precautionary, and Speculative: Bulls and Bears; Liquidity Preference Theory of Interest Rate Determination
UNIT 8: KEYNESIAN CONSUMPTION FUNCTION

Keynesian Consumption function: Fundamental Psychological Law of Consumption, Average and marginal propensity to consume; Factors influencing consumption spending.
UNIT 9: CONCEPT OF MULTIPLIER CONCEPT, DERIVATION OF INVESTMENT MULTIPLIER
Algebraic Derivation of Multiplier, Calculating the ize or Value of Multiplier, A umption of Multiplier Theory, Working of the Multiplier; Leakage of Multiplier, Multiplier in developing country condition
UNIT 10: INVESTMENT FUNCTIO AND MEC

Autonomous and Induced investment; Marginal efficiency of capital and Marginal Efficiency of Investment; MEC and volume of Investment

UNIT 11: IS-LM Model

Derivation of IS curve; Slope and Shift; Derivation of LM Curve, Slope and Shift; Interaction of IS and LM Curves
UNIT 12: ACCELERATION PRINCIPLES

Definition, The Principle of Acceleration, Operation of the Accelerator, Assumption and

Criticism.

UNIT 13: BUSINESS CYCLES

Concept, Features of Business Cycle, Phases of Business Cycle, Causes and effects, Control of Business Cycles
UNIT 14: BUSINESS CYCLES THEORY

Multiplier-Accelerator Interaction: Samuelson and Hicks

UNIT 15: WELFARE ECONOMICS

Welfare and Welfare Economics; Concepts of Pigovian Utilitarian Welfare and Paretian

Welfare; Value Judgement and Welfare Economics

 

Economics B.A Syllabus for Third Semester

 

COURSE 3: MONEY, BANKING AND FINANCIAL SYSTEMS

UNIT 1: CONCEPT OF MONEY

Concept of Money; Types of Money; Functions of Money; Role of Money in the Economy

UNIT 2: DEMAND FOR MONEY: CLASSICAL APPROACH

The Classical Approach to Demand for Money: Fisherian Approach And Cambridge Approach to Quantity Theory of Money; Comparison between the Fisherian Approach And Cambridge Approach

UNIT 3: DEMAND FOR MONEY: KEYNESIAN APPROACH

Demand for Money: Transaction demand for money, Precautionary demand for money, Speculative demand for money and Total demand for money

UNIT 4: RESTATEMENT OF THE QUANTITY THEORY OF MONEY

Re tatement of quantity theory of money: Keyne ‘ Reformulation of the Quantity Theory of

Money, Friedman’ Reformulation of the Quantity Theory of Money; Friedman ver u Keyne

UNIT 5: SUPPLY OF MONEY AND EMPIRICAL MEASUREMENT OF MO EY

Supply of Money: Definition, Determinants; Money Multiplier; Credit Multiplier; Empirical measurement of money: The Narrow and Broad definition of Money
UNIT 6: FU CTIO S OF CE TRAL BANKS

Functions of Central Bank; Role of Central Bank in Developing Countries.

UNIT 7: CENTRAL BANK AND CREDIT CONTROL

Methods of Credit Control: Quantitative and Qualitative Measures;

UNIT 8: COMMERCIAL BANKS

Commercial Banks: Functions, Balance Sheet; Conflict between Liquidity and Profit

UNIT 9: CREDIT CREATION BY COMMERCIAL BANAKS

Credit Creation by Commercial Banks and Its Limitations

UNIT 10: INSTITUTIONAL EVOLUTION IN THE BANKING SECTOR

Micro Credit; Small Banks; Payment Banks; Financial Inclusion: Banking Correspondent and

Pradhan Mantri Jan DhanYojana

UNIT 11: INFLATION, DEFLATION AND STAGFLATION

Meaning of inflation; Demand Pull Inflation, Cost Push Inflation and Structural Inflation; Effects of Inflation; Anti-Inflationary Measures: Meaning, Causes and Effects of deflation; Inflation Vs Deflation; Stagflation (Concept only)
UNIT 12: MONETARY POLICY

Meaning, Objectives, Targets and Instruments of Monetary Policy; Effects of Monetary Policy in Recession and Inflation
UNIT 13: THE FINANCIAL SYSTEM

Meaning, Role and Components of the Financial System

UNIT 14: CAPITAL MARKET

Meaning of Capital Market; Primary and Secondary Market; Role of Stock Exchange in the

Economy

UNIT 15: MONEY MARKET

Meaning and Role of Money Market; Instruments in the Money Market; Interrelations between Money market and Capital Market

COURSE 4: QUANTITATIVE METHODS FOR ECONOMICANAL YSIS – I

UNIT 1: THE NUMBER SYSTEM

The Natural Numbers; Integer ; Rational Numbers; Irrational Number ; Real Number System; Concepts of Constant and Its different type , Concept of Variables and It Yariou types.
UNIT 2: THEORY OF SETS

Definition, Set Operations: Union and Intersection of Sets, Disjoint Sets, Difference of Sets; Complement of a Set; Diagrammatic Representation of Sets

UNIT 3: RELATIONS AND FUNCTIONS

Concept of Relation: Identity Relation, Inverse Relation; Concept of Function; Different types of Functions: Linear Function, Quadratic Function, Cubic Function, Constant Function, Polynomial Function, Rational Function, Power Function

UNIT4: FUNCTIONS IN ECONOMICS

Some Fundamental Functions in Economics: Demand Function, Supply Function, Savings Function, Production Function, Cost Function, Revenue Function, Utility Function, Profit Function
UNIT 5: EQUATIONS IN ECONOMICS

Rewriting and Solving Equations; Concept of Demand and Supply Equations; Cost-volume•

profit Equations; Budget Lines
UNIT 6: DETERMINANTS AND MATRIX ALGEBRA

Properties of Determinants; Solution of a Set of Linear Equations by Cramer’s Rule;

Concept of a matrix; Types of Matrix; Equality of Matrices; Addition and Subtraction of Matrices; Scalar Multiplication of Matrix; Multiplication of Matrix; Transpose of a Matrix; Symmetric Matrices (Concept only)
UNITI: ECONOMIC APPLICATIONS OF DETERMINANTS AND MATRICES

Solution of Partial Equilibrium Market Model using Matrix Inversion Method, Solution of Partial Equilibrium Market Model using Crammer’s Rule, Solution of National Income Model by Matrix Inversion Method, Solution of a National Income Model using Cramer’s Rule
UNIT 8: LIMIT AND CONTINUITY

Limits: Finding Limits Analytically, Examples of Evaluations of Limits Using Various Rules, Limits by the Method of Substitution, A Special Limit, Some Other Special Limits, One Sided Limits; Continuity: Basic Definitions and Example, Algebra of Continuous Functions
UNIT 9: DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS

Concept and Definition of Derivative; Graphical Repre entation of Derivative; Rule of Differentiation; Example of Differentiation; Partial and Total Derivative: Concept and Rule ; Total Differentials.
UNITlO: ECO OMIC APPLICATIONS OF DERIVATIVES

Economic Applications in Deriving the Marginal values from the Totals; Application to the Problem of Elasticity: Point Elasticity, Arc Elasticity; Price Elasticity; Income Elasticity, Elasticity of Supply
UNIT 11: CONCEPTS OF MAXIMA AND MINIMA (UNCONSTRAINED)

Concepts of Local and Global Maxima and Minima; Conditions for deriving Maxima and

Minima; Exercises

UNIT 12: ECONOMIC APPLICATIONS OF MAXIMA AND MINIMA

Economic Applications relating to Maximisation of Revenue, Profit, Tax collection, Average and Marginal Productivity of Labour; Economic Applications relating to Minimisation of Production Cost, Inventory Cost, Profit, Tax collection, Average and Marginal Productivity of Labour.
UNIT 13: INTEGRATION AND METHODS OF INTEGRATION

Integration of a function, Basic Rules of Integration; Definite Integral: concept and

Calculation

UNIT 14: APPLICATIONS OF INTEGRAL CALCULUS TO ECONOMIC PROBLEMS
Economic Applications in Arriving at Totals from Marginal Values, Consumer’s Surplus and

Producer’ Surplus
UNIT 15: EQUALITY CONSTRAINT OPTIMIZATION AND ITS ECONOMIC APPLICATIONS
Structure of Objective Function and Constraint Function, Lagrange’s Function and

Lagrange’s Multiplier; Economic Applications of Constraint Optimization: Theory of

Consumer Behaviour, Least-Cost Combination of Input

Economics B.A Syllabus for Fourth Semester

COURSES:DEVELOPMENT ECONOMICS

UNIT 1: CONCEPTS OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND ITS MEASUREMENT Economic Growth and Development- Concepts, Defining Development and Underdevelopment, Measurement of Economic Development: Per Capita Income (PCI), Human Development Index (HDI).

UNIT 2: GENDER ISSUES OF DEVELOPMENT

Gender Related Development Index (GDI), Gender Empowerment Index (GEM)

UNIT 3: ISSUES OF DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

Structure and Characteristics of Developing Countries, Obstacles to Growth and Development• Vicious Circle of Poverty, Unemployment, Inequality.

UNIT 4: DEVELOPMENT THEORIES

Classical Development Theories of Adam Smith and Ricardo: Assumptions, Discussions, Importance, Criticisms, Arthur Lewis Theory of Development; Rostow’s Stages of Economic Growth.

UNIT 5: BALANCED AND UNBALANCED GROWTH

Balanced and Unbalanced Growth: Concepts and Importance in Developing Countries

UNIT 6: HARROD-DOMAR GROWTH MODEL

Harrod-Domar Growth Model- Assumptions, Its Importance in Developing Countries, Criticisms.

UNIT 7: ROLE OF AGRICULTURE AND INDUSTRY IN ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

Indian Agriculture in the Planning Period, Modernisation of Agriculture, Green Revolution, Role of Agriculture in Developing Countries, Growth of Indian Industry in the Planning Period; Role of Industry in Developing Countries.

UNIT 8: POPULATION AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

The Theory of Demographic Transition; The two conflicting views on Population and

Development- Malthusian View and Kuznets-Simon- Boserup View.

UNIT 9: CAPITAL FORMATION AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

Significance of Capital Formation in Economic Development; Reasons of Low Rate of Capital

Formation in Developing Countries.

UNIT 10: TECHNICAL CHANGE AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

Role of Technology in Economic Development; Problems of Technology in Developing Countries.

UNIT 11: ENVIRONMENT AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

Economic Development and its Impact on Environment; Concepts – Public Goods and Bads, Free Rider Problem.
UNIT 12: FOREIGN TRADE AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

Role of Foreign Trade in Promoting Economic Development- Issues and Constraints.

UNIT 13: ROLE OF STATE IN ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

Role of State in Promoting Economic Development- Problems and Challenge ; Role of Public

Sector in Developing Countrie .

UNIT 14: MANPOWER PLANNING AND ECO OMIC DEVELOPME T

Need for Manpower Planning in Developing Countries; Manpower Planning in India.

UNIT 15: HUMA RESOURCE DEVELOPME T AND MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS
Human Resource Development: Concept and Significance; Indicators of Human Resource

Development, Millennium Development Goals: Concept and Importance

COURSE 6: QUANTITATIVE METHODS FOR ECONOMIC ANALYSIS – II

UNIT 1: INTRODUCTION TO STATISTICS

Meaning Importance of Statistics; Methods of Presenting Statistical Information, Tabulation of Data; Parts of a Table
UNIT 2:VISUAL REPRESENTATION OF DA TA

Idea of a distribution, Frequency Distribution, Graphical representation data, Histogram, Frequency Polygon, Ogive, Cartographic and pictorial presentation of data
UNIT 3: MEASURE OF CENTRAL TENDENCY
Measures of Central Tendency: Definition, Characteristics of a Good Average; r. Symbol; Arithmetic Mean: Simple and Weighted, Median, Mode, Geometric mean; Harmonic Mean
UNIT 4: MEASURE OF DISPERSION

Dispersion: Objectives of studying Dispersions, Range; Inter -Quartile Range and Quartile

Deviation, Mean Deviation; Standard Deviation and Variance; Coefficient of Variation

UNIT 5: SKEWNESS,MOMENTSAND KURTOSIS

Skewness; Measures of Skewness: Moments (concept only), Kurtosis: Measures of Kurtosis

UNIT6: CORRELATION

Meaning and Concept; Types of correlation; Methods of Measuring correlation: Underlying

Assumptions, Interpretation of Correlation Coefficient

UNIT 7: REGRESSION

Meaning and Concept; Linear Regression; Line of Regression and Regression Equation; Coefficient of Regression; Relation between Correlation and Regression Coefficients; Correlation and Regression Analysis: A Compari on
UNIT 8: FUNDAMENTALS OF PROBABILITY

Random Experiment; Cla ical Definition of Probability; Sample Space; Axiomatic Definition of Probability; Theorem on Probability, Conditional probability; Baye’ theorem (Concept only).
UNIT9: RANDOM VARIABLES AND PROBABILITY

Random Variable: Definition or Random Variable, Discrete Random Variable, Continuous Random Variable; Probability Distribution: Probability Mass Function, Probability Density Function; Mathematical Expectation and Variance: Mathematical Expectation, , Variance of Random Variable.
UNIT 10: THEORETICAL DISTRIBUTION- I

Binomial Distribution: Derivation of Binomial Distribution: Definition, Moments of Binomial

Distribution, Properties of Binomial Distribution, Importance of Binomial Distribution,

UNIT 11: THEORETICAL DISTRIBUTION-II

Poisson Process: Poisson Distribution as a limiting case of Binomial Distribution, Properties of Poisson Distribution, Application of Poisson Distribution,
UNIT 12: THEORETICAL DISTRIBUTION-ill

Normal Distribution: Definition, Standard Normal Variate, Properties of Normal

Distribution, Area under Normal Probability Curve, Importance of Normal Distribution

UNIT 13: INDEX NUMBERS

Concept of Index Numbers; Types of Simple Index Numbers; Properties of Relatives; Construction of Simple Index Numbers, Construction of Weighted Index Numbers; Test of Adequacy of Index Numbers; Uses of Index Numbers
UNIT 14 : TIME SERIES

Definition of Time Series; Importance of Time Series Analysis; Components of a Time Series; Methods of Measuring Secular Trend; Estimation of the Trend by the Method of Moving Average
UNIT 15: BASIC CONCEPTS IN SAMPLING

Defining Population, Parameter and Sampling: Random and Non Random Sampling, Sampling with and without Replacement, Large Samples; Errors in Sampling

Economics B.A Syllabus for Fifth Semester

 

COURSE 7: PUBLIC FINANCE

UNIT 1: NATURE AND SCOPE OF PUBLIC FINANCE

Meaning & Scope of Public Finance; Public Finance and Private Finance; Public Good and Private Good ;Public good and free riding; Public Good and Market Failure.Common Resources and Tragedy of Common ;Club good & local public finance
UNIT 2: PUBLIC REVENUE

Basic Concepts of Public Revenue: Meaning of Public Revenue, Distinction between Revenue and Non-Revenue Receipt, Need for Public Revenue; Source of Public Revenue: Tax Revenue and Non-Tax Revenue

UNIT 3: INTRODUCTION TO TAXA TIO

Meaning and Features of Taxation; Canons of Taxation; Shifting and Incidence of Tax• Direct and Indirect Taxes; Merits and Demerits of Direct and Indirect Taxes
UNIT 4: SOME IMPORTANT TAXES

Income Tax, Corporate Tax, Capital Gains Tax, Expenditure tax, Gift tax, Sales Tax, VAT, GST
UNIT 5: TAXATION AND THE ECONOMY

Tax Ratio and Taxable Capacity; Effects of Taxation: On Production, On Distribution, On Stabilization

UNIT 6: FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF TAXATION

Concept of Equity in Taxation: The Benefit Principle of Taxation; The Principle of Ability to pay; Rate Schedules of Taxation
UNIT 7: PUBLIC EXPENDITURE

Meaning of Public Expenditure; Canons of Public Expenditure; Theories of Public Expenditure: The Theory of Maximum Social Advantage; The Principle of Maximum Aggregate Benefit
UNIT 8: EFFECTS OFPUBLIC EXPENDITURE

Effects of Public Expenditure on production, distribution and economic stability; Role of Public

Expenditure in developing economy

UNIT 9: PUBLIC DEBT

Basic Concepts of Public Debt: Meaning, Distinction between public Debt and Private Debt, Sources of Public Debt; Burden of Public Debt; Methods of Public Debt Redemption
UNIT 10:FISCAL POLICY

Meaning; Objectives; Components; Compensatory Fiscal Policy and Pump Priming, Fiscal

Policy in a Developing Economy

UNIT 11: PUBLIC BUDGET

Concept; Components; Classification of Public Budget: Balanced and unbalanced budget, capital and revenue budget, Incremental and Zero Ba e Budgeting;
Budget deficit: Revenue Deficit, Fi cal Deficit and Primary Deficit

UNIT 12: PUBLIC UTILITIES

Meaning; Characteristics; Role of public utilities; Optimal pricing of public utility ervices; Peak load pricing.
UNIT 13: PUBLIC SECTOR UNDERTAKINGS

Meaning; Forms; Role of PSUs in developing economy; Performance and shortcomings of

PSUs in India.

UNIT 14:FEDERAL FINANCE

Concept of Fiscal Federalism; Principles of Federal Finance; Horizontal and Vertical Fiscal Balances• lnstrumer.

UNIT 15: FINANCE COMMISSIONS OF INDIA

Finance Commission of India and its role; Recommendation of Current Finance Commission of

India.

COURSE 8: INTERNATIONAL ECONOMICS

UNIT 1: THEORY OF INTERNATIONAL TRADE

The Basis and Need of International Trade; Internal and International Trade, Distinction

Theory of Absolute Cost Advantage; Theory of Comparative Cost Advantage
UNIT 2: FREE TRADE VS. PROTECTION

Free Trade versus Protection: Case for Free Trade, Case for Protection; Importance of

Protection in Developing Economies; Measures of Protection

UNIT 3: THE OPPORTUNITY COST THEORY

Haberler’s Opportunity Cost Theory; Constant. Increasing and Decreasing Opportunity Cost and International Trade
UNIT 4: THE HECKSCHER-OHLIN THEORY

The Heckscher-Ohlin Theory of International Trade: Physical Criterion and Price Criterion; Criticisms
UNIT 5: TERMS OF TRADE AND GAINS FROM TRADE

Meaning of Terms of Trade: Net Barter or Commodity Terms of Trade, Gross Barter Terms of Trade, Income Terms of Trade; Factors affecting Terms of Trade
Gains from Trade

UNIT 6 : TOOLS OF TRADE RESTRICTION

Cla sification of Tariffs; Effect of Tariffs; Dumping: Meaning; Types and Effect ; Anti• dumping mea ure ; Cartel : Meaning; Advantage and Di advantage of Cartel ; Cu tom Union: Meaning; Concept of Trade Creation and Trade Diver ion; Quota : Meaning, Type and Effects;
UNIT 7: ECONOMIC INTEGRA TIO

Preferential Trading Areas, Free Trade Areas, Customs Union, Common Market, Economic

Union, Concepts Of Trade Creation And Trade Diversion

UNIT 8: BALANCE OF PAYMENTS

Distinction between Balance of Payments and Balance of Trade; Balance of Payment: Current and Capital Accounts• Disequilibrium in the Balance of Payment and Various Corrective Measures.
UNIT 9: FOREIGN EXCHANGE

Meaning and Instruments; Foreign Exchange Market; Rate Of Exchange; Determination of

Equilibrium Rate of Exchange

UNIT 10: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY SYSTEM

Bretton Woods System; Monetary System after the Collapse of Bretton Woods System; Proposal for Reforming the Present Exchange Rate Adjustment
UNIT 11: INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS

International Monetary Fund; World Bank; International Regional Development Banks

UNIT 12: WORLD TRADE ORGANISATION (WTO)

Introduction; The WTO; Objectives; Functions; Critical Appraisal
UNIT 13: GLOBALISATION

Meaning; India’s Move Towards Globalisation; Consequence of Globalisation-Positive

Effects, Negative Effects

UNIT 14: FOREIGN INVESTMENT

Meaning; Significance and Impact of FDI and Portfolio Investment

UNIT 15: REGIONAL ECONOMIC INTEGRATION AMONG DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
Concept; Type; Advantage; Asian Economic Cooperation: SAARC, SAPTA, SAFTA

(Concepts Only)

COURSE 9: DEMOGRAPHY

UNIT 1: INTRODUCTION TO DEMOGRAPHY

Definition, nature, cope and importance; Origin and development; Relation with other Social

Science

UNIT 2: FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS IN DEMOGRAPHY-•

Fertility, Mortality and Migration

UNIT 3: BASIC QUANTITATIVE TECHNIQUES IN DEMOGRAPHY

Nature of Demographic Data: Fertility Rate; Mortality Rate

UNIT 4: SOURCES OF DEMOGRAPIDC DATA

Census; Registration Data; National Sample Survey; Recent Initiatives Like Aadhaar, NRC International Sources
UNIT 5: THEORIES OF POPULATION-I

Malthusian Theory of Population; Neo Malthusian Theory of Population

UNIT 6: THEORIES OF POPULATION -II

Optimum Theory of Population; Theory of Demographic Transition

UNIT 7: DEMOGRAPHY AND URBANISATION

Meaning; Methods of Measuring Size of Urbanisation; Factors responsible for Urbanisation; Problems of Urbanisation
UNIT 8: URBANISATION IN INDIA

Trends of Urbanisation since independence; Problem of Urbanisation and Measures

UNIT 9: POPULATION DYNAMICS IN INDIA

Fertility; Mortality and Migration in India

UNIT 10: POPULATION GROWTH AND DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION IN INDIA Growth of Population since 1901; Nature and Characteristics of Indian Population; Demographic Dividend of Indian Population.

UNIT 11: QUALITATIVE ASPECTS OF INDIAN POPULATION-I (EDUCATION) Achievement of Indian Population in Literacy, completion of Secondary, Senior Secondary and Higher Education.Inter-state, Inter-community and gender perspectives.
UNIT 12: QUALITATIVE ASPECTS OF INDIAN POPULATION -II (HEALTH)

Life Expectancy, Birth rate and Death rates.Inter-state, Inter-community and gender perspectives.
UNIT 13: DETERMINANTS OF POPULATION GROWffl

Vital rates, Population Pyramid, Life table

UNIT 14: POPULATION AND DEVELOPMENT

Population as a constraint on and a resource for development; Relationship between population and poverty; Relationship between population growth and Environment; Concept of Population Education and its importance
UNIT 15: POPULATION POLICY IN INDIA

Population policy and Role of tate; Population policy in India: Pre independence, Po t independence – hift in per pective; Family planning- 1961; Family welfare 1977; National Population Policy 2000 and development there after

COURSE 10: REGIONAL ECONOMY OF NORTH EAST INDIA

UNIT 1: NORTH EAST AS A REGION

Concept of India’s North East as an Economic Region; Characteristics of the Economy of the North-East; North Eastern Council (NEC): Aims and Objectives; Role and Function of NEC in Regional Development; Critical Evaluation

UNIT 2: NATURAL AND HUMAN RESOURCES OF THE NORTH EAST

Natural Resources – Mineral, Forest, Water and Their Uses; Prospects and Challenges

Human Resources of the North East: Size, And Growth of Population; Characteristics of the Population: Sex Ratio, Age Composition, Density, Rural-Urban Ratio and Occupational Distribution; Indicators of Human Development: Life Expectancy, Infant Mortality and Literacy
UNIT 3: MAJOR ECONOMIC PROBLEMS OF NORTH EAST INDIA

Poverty, Unemployment, Low Capital Formation, Other Socio- Economic Problems
UNIT 4: DOMESTIC PRODUCT OF NER

Trend and Composition of State Domestic Product and Per Capita Income of the Different States of the Region in the Post-Independence Period; Reasons for Slow Growth Rate of State Income
UNIT 5: AGRICULTURE IN NORTH EAST INDIA

Importance of Agriculture for the N-E Economy; Land-Use Pattern and Cropping Pattern; Agricultural Production and Productivity; Modernisation of Agriculture in the Region
UNIT 6: PROBLEMS AND CHALLENGES FACED BY PRIMARY SECTOR INNER Problems of Primary Sector; Challenges faced by Agricultural Sector; Suggestions for Improvement
UNIT7: SHIFTING CULTIVATION AND PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL

TRANSITION IN HILL AREAS

Concept of Shifting Cultivation; Harmful Impact of Shifting Cultivation; Problem of

Agricultural Transition in Hill Areas.

UNIT 8: INFRASTRUCTURE IN THE NORTH EAST

State of Infra tructure in the Region: Power, Tran port and Communication; Finance; Health and Education
UNIT 9: INDUSTRIALISATION IN THE ER

Role of Organized and Unorganized Industries; Extent of Industrial Development; Current Industrial Policy for N-E India (Important Features Only); Problems Faced by the Industries of NER; Suggestions to Overcome the Problems; Development of SS Is in NER; Problems and Prospects
UNIT 10: BORDER TRADE AND LOOK EAST POLICY

Prospect of Border Trade with Neighbouring Countries; Look East Policy• Act East Policy

UNIT 11: BANKING AND FINANCIAL INCLUSION INNER-PERFORMANCE, PROSPECTS AND CHALLENGES
Performance of Banking Sector in NER, Prospect and Challenges; Performance, Problems and Prospect of Regional Rural Banks (RRBs) in NER
UNIT 12: DEVELOPMENT OF TOURISM SECTOR INNER-PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS
Tourism Sector in NER-Present Status; Prospect of Tourism Sector in NER; Specific

Problems Faced by the Tourism Sector in NER

UNIT 13: CO-OPERATIVE MOVEMENTS AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMES INNER WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO ASSAM
History of Co-Operative Movement In NER And Assam; Features Of The Co-Operative

System; STATEFED; Weakness Of The Co-Operative System
UNIT 14: ECONOMIC PLANNING INNER WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO ASSAM
Economic Planning in Assam and NER after Independence; Major Achievement; Failures

UNIT 15: COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMES INNER WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO ASSAM.
Major Community Development Programmes in NER and Assam; Achievements and Limitations; Role of Local Government in Economic Development: Panchayati Raj Institutions

Economics B.A Syllabus for Six Semester

COURSE 11: INDIAN ECONOMY

UNIT 1 : INDIAN ECONOMY: ITS BASIC CHARACTERISTICS, DEVELOPMENT AND GROWTH

Indian Economy in the pre-independence period, Characteristics of India as a developing economy; Emerging Issues of development in the Indian economy. National Income: Trends, size and Composition

UNIT 2 : POPULATION AND HUMAN RESOURCES

Size, and growth of Population; Characteristics of the population: sex ratio, age composition, density, rural-urban ratio and occupational distribution. Indicators of Human Development: Life Expectancy, Infant Mortality and Literacy

UNIT 3: INFRASTRUCTURE IN THE INDIAN ECONOMY

Infrastructural Facilities in India: Energy, Power, Transport and Communication, Urban

Infrastructure in India, Industrial Corridor and Smart Cities,

UNIT 4:INDIAN AGRICULTURE & GREEN REVOLUTION

Role of agriculture in Indian economy; Nature of India’s agriculture; Trends in Agricultural Production and Productivity; Factors Influencing Productivity; The new agricultural strategy and the Green Revolution; Impact of Green Revolution

UNIT 5:LAND REFORMS

Tenets, Objectives and strategies of Land Reforms; Appraisal of land reforms in India.

UNIT 6:AGRICULTURAL FINANCE, RURAL CREDIT AND AGRICULTURAL MARKETING
Need for agricultural finance; Sources; Role of Rural co-operatives; commercial banks and Regional rural banks; Role of NABARD Agricultural marketing: Concept and basic requirements; Limitations of agricultural marketing; Role of the Government in promoting agricultural marketing

UNIT 7: FOOD SECURITY AND PUBLIC DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM IN INDIA

Concept of Food Security; Salient Features of Food Security Act 2013, Public Distribution

Systems and Its Impact on Poverty; Problems of the PDS and Suggestive Measures

UNIT 8: INDIAN INDUSTRY – DEVELOPMENTAL EXPERIENCE

Strategy of Industrial Development in India; Industrial Development since Independence; Problems of Industrialisation in India Industrial Policy Resolution, 1956; New Industrial
Policy, 1991; Recent Policy Reform Measures in Initiated in the Industrial Sector

UNIT 9: SMALL SCALE AND COTTAGE INDUSTRIES & INDUSTRIAL SICKNESS Definition of Small Scale Indu trie and Related Terms; Role of Small Scale Indu trie in the Indian Economy; Government Policy relating to Small Scale Indu trie ; Problems of Small Scale Industries in India and their Remedial Mea ure
UNIT 10: THE ROLE OF THE TERTIARY SECTOR IN THE INDIA ECO OMY

Changing role of the Tertiary Sector in the Indian Economy; The Recent Growth of the IT and other service sectors; Major Issues in faced by the Service Sector and Suggestive Policy Measures

UNIT 11: THE FINANCIAL SECTOR IN INDIA

Commercial Banking and Its Changing Role: Pre and Post-nationalisation; Regional Rural Banks: Its role in the Indian economy; Reserve Bank of India: Its Developmental Role in the Indian Economy; The Role of other NBFls in the Indian Economy; The Major Reforms
initiated in the Financial Market.

UNIT 12: UNORGANISED SECTOR, LABOUR PROBLEMS AND LABOUR POLICY Unorganised Sector and India’s Informal Economy; Size and Features; Major Issues; Suggestive Measures Present Status of Agricultural Labours in India; Major Recommendations of the National Commission on Rural Labour; Features of Industrial Labour; Trade Union Movement in India; Settlement of Industrial Disputes; Social Security Measures introduced for the welfare of the labours; Problems in the Labour Market and Suggestive Measures.
UNIT 13: PLANNING FOR DEVELOPMENT

Economic Planning in India; Overall Objectives of Economic Planning; Overall Achievements and Failures of Economic Planning; The Current Five Year Plan: Objectives and TargetsMajor Objectives, Targets and Achievements of the Last Five Year Plan; Critical Assessment.
UNIT 14: ECONOMIC REFORMS AND GLOBALISATION

Economic Crisis prior to 1991 Economic Reforms; New Economic Policy of 1991; Indian

Economy since Economic Reforms

UNIT 15: WTO AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR INDIA

Agreements Implemented under the WTO and their Implications for India.

COURSE 12: INTRODUCTION TO ENVIRONMENTAL ECONOMICS

UNIT 1: BASICS OF ENVIRONMENTAL ECONOMICS

What i Environmental Economic – It Nature and Scope, The Environment-Economy

Interaction, The State of Environmental Degradation

UNIT 2: EXTERNALITY AND MARKET FAILURE

Why Markets Function and Why Markets Fail, Pareto Optimality and Market Failure in the

Presence of Externalities, Environment as a Public Good

UNIT 3: PROPERTY RIGHTS AND COASE THEOREM

Property Rights and the Coase Theorem, Criticisms of the Coase Theorem, The Tragedy of the

Commons

UNIT 4: ENVIRONMENT AND DEVELOPMENT

Environmental Kuznets Curve, Empirical Evidence

UNIT 5: ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATION AND POLICIES

Pollution: Air Pollution, Water Pollution and Noise Pollution; Controlling Pollution, Instruments used for management of environment – Command and Control, Pollution Taxes, Marketable Pollution Permits
UNIT 6: SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT

Causes, Effects and Control Measures of Urban and Industrial Wastes

UNIT 7: VALUATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL GOODS AND SERVICES

Subjective Preference-Based Valuation – Willingness to Pay; Revealed Preference-Based Valuation -Travel Cost Method, Hedonic Price Theory; Stated Preference Method – Contingent Valuation Method (Concepts Only)
UNIT 8: ECONOMICS OF NATURAL RESOURCES I

Types of Natural Resources, Managing Exhaustible Resources, Resource Extraction and

Environmental Cost

UNIT 9: ECONOMICS OF NATURAL RESOURCES II

Managing Renewal Resources, The Idea of Sustainable yield, The Economically Optimal Rate of Harvest
UNIT 10: SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT I

Concepts, Measurement and Indicators of Sustainable Development

UNIT 11: SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT II

Perspectives from Indian Experiences – Environment Protection Act, Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, Water (Prevention and control of Pollution) Act, Wildlife Protection Act, Forest Conservation Act
UNIT 12: GREEN ACCOUNTING

Concept, Alternative Indicators of Sustainability

UNIT 13: GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES

Climate Change – its Implication and Mitigation, Global Warming, Acid Rain, Ozone Layer

Depletion, Environment and Human Health

UNIT 14: DOMESTIC E VIRONMENTAL POLICY

Evolution of Environmental Policy in India, Environmental Impact Management

UNIT 15: COMMUNITY AND E VIRONMENT

Women and Environment, Chipko Movement, Narmada BachaoAndolan

COURSE 13: RURAL DEVELOPMENT ANDRURAL FINANCE IN INDIA

UNIT 1: BASIC CONCEPTS OF RURAL DEVELOPMENT

Concept of Rural Development; Why Rural Development?, Some Dilemmas in Development – Rural Vs Urban Development, Agriculture Vs Industrial Development, Capital Vs Labour Dogma, Autonomous Vs Induced Development
UNIT 2: RURAL ECONOMY OF INDIA

Size and Structure of the Indian Rural Economy; Importance and Role of the Rural Sector in India; Economic, social and Demographic Characteristics of the Indian Rural Economy; Causes of Rural Backwardness (Indian Context)
UNIT 3: APPROACHES TO RURAL DEVELOPMENT

Community Development Programmes; Gandhian Approach to Rural Development; Balancing

Rural and Urban Development
UNIT 4: COTTAGE INDUSTRIES IN INDIA

Role of Cottage Industries in Indian Economy; Various Cottage Industries of India; Government Policies for Cottage Industries
UNIT 5: RURAL INDEBTEDNESS IN INDIA

Meaning; Nature; Consequences of Rural Indebtedness; Programmes for Removal of Rural

Indebtedness

UNIT 6: RURAL UNEMPLOYMENT IN INDIA

Characteristics; Incidence of Rural Unemployment in India; Employment Generation Measures

UNIT 7: POVERTY IN RURAL INDIA

Characteristics; Incidence of Rural Poverty in India; Poverty Eradication Measures

UNIT 8: ROLE OF TECHNOLOGY IN RURAL DEVELOPMENT

Importance of Rural Technology in Agriculture and Allied Sectors; Issues with Use of

Technologies

UNIT 9: AGRICULTURE AND LIVESTOCK INSURANCE IN INDIA

Role of Agriculture and Livestock In urance in India; An As es ment of Different Rural

In urance Scheme in India

UNIT 10: RURAL FINANCE IN INDIA

Non-Institutional Sources of Rural Finance in India – lndigenou Banker, Money Lenders, Landlords, Traders; Institutional Sources of Rural Finance in India – Co-Operative Banks, Public Sector Banks, Corporations and Apex Bodies (NABARD, Agricultural Finance Corporation, RRBs)

UNIT 11: ROLE OF COMMERCIAL BANKS IN RURAL FINANCE IN INDIA

Progress of Commercial Banks; Priority Sector Lending; The Lead Bank Scheme; Analysis of Major Schemes of the Government of India undertaken since 1990 in different sectors – Agriculture, Animal Husbandry, Fishery, Cottage Industries; Difficulties faced in Implementation of these Schemes
UNIT 12: CO-OPERATIVE BANKS

Progress of Co-operative Banks in India; Advantages of Co-Operative Institutions; Problems faced by Co-Operative Banks in Financing Rural Development
UNIT 13: REGIONAL RURAL BANKS

Objectives and Functions of RRBs; Evaluation of Progress and Activities of RRBs; Critical

Assessment of Functions of RRBs

UNIT 14: NABARD

Objectives and Functions of NABARD; Evaluation of Progress and Activities of NABARD; Critical Assessment of Functions of NABARD
UNIT 15: RECENT INNOVATIONS IN RURAL FINANCE

Micro Credit, NGOs and Self-Help Groups, Rural Service Centres of Banks

COURSE 14: HISTORY OF ECONOMIC THOUGHT

UNIT 1: INTRODUCTION TO HISTORY OF ECONOMIC THOUGHT

Need and Importance of the History of Economic Thought; Nature and Significance

UNIT 2: ANCIENT INDIAN ECONOMIC THOUGHT

Kautilya’sArthasastra: View on Economy; Wealth and Public Economics

UNIT 3: EARLY MODERN INDIAN ECONOMIC THOUGHT

Naoroji: Drain Theory; Criticism; Long Run Relevance

Ranade: Poverty and Industrialisation; Agrarian Policy; Railway Investment; Methodology of

Economics

UNIT 4: GANDHIAN ECONOMICS

Con umption Behaviour;Village Economy; Swade hi; Technology;Indu triali ation and the

Scale of Production; Tru teeship; Sarvodaya; Non-violent Economy;Decentrali ation

UNIT 5: THE MERCANTILIST SCHOOL

Overview of Mercantilism; Main Doctrines of Mercantilism;Rise and Fall of Mercantilism

UNIT 6: THE PHYSIOCRA TIC SCHOOL

Overview of Physiocracy; Main Doctrines of Physiocracy; Natural Order; Net produit; Circulation of Wealth; Tableau Economique; Taxation, Trade.
UNIT 7: THE CLASSICAL SCHOOL- SMITH

Features of Classical School; Political Philosophy; Naturalism and Optimism; Wealth of Nations; Doctrine of Laissez Faire, Cannon of taxation, Theory of Value, Theory of Distribution, Trade; Economic Development
UNIT 8: THE CLASSICAL SCHOOL- MAL THUS

Malthusian Population Theory; Theory of Gluts; Neo-Malthusianism

UNIT 9: THE CLASSICAL SCHOOL- RICARDO

The Theory of Diminishing Returns; Theory of Exchange Value and Relative Prices; Distribution of Income and Trade
UNIT 10: THE CLASSICAL SCHOOL-MILL

Restatement of Classical Theory; Major Economic Thoughts of J. S. Mill

UNIT 11: THE RISE OF SOCIALIST THOUGHT

Overview of Socialism; Scientific Socialism; Theory of Value; Theory of Surplus Value; Theory of Economic Development
UNIT 12: THE MARGINALIST SCHOOL-JEVONS, MENGER AND W ALRAS

Marginalist School; Economic Thoughts of Jevons, Menger and Walras

UNIT 13: THE AUSTRIAN SCHOOL- BOHM-BA WERK AND WIESER

Austrian School; Economic Thoughts of Bohm-Bawerk and Wieser

UNIT 14: THE NEOCLASSICAL SCHOOL-MARSHALL

Features of Neoclassical School; Marshall as a Synthesiser, Economic Thoughts of Marshall

UNIT 15: THE KEYNESIAN SCHOOL-KEYNES

Departure from the Classical School (Difference between Classical and Keynesian School), Major Contribution of Keynes to Economics, Policy Prescriptions.

 

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