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Philosophy B.A Syllabus for KKHSOU



Philosophy B.A Syllabus for KKHSOU: KKHSOU provides both Pass course and Major/ Honors for the subject. It has a good faculty of teachers. It is a open and distance course. But there may be optional classes. So syllabus becomes very important before the course and also after the course. Now it is very important to know you syllabus that how it is structure. As it will impact your future studies. So you can download the syllabus for Philosophy at KKHSOU for free. The syllabus will be in PDF  format.

Philosophy B.A Syllabus for KKHSOU


Syllabus in video form.

Detailed Course wise Syllabus of BA Programme in Philosophy


Philosophy B.A Syllabus SEMESTER 1



Unit 1: Nature of formal Logic (Classical and modern logic as two stages of the development of formal logic)

Formal logic: What it is, Logic and deductive argument, Symbolic logic

Unit 2: Argument: Argument and Argument form; Truth and Validity

Logic: What it is, Nature of Argument, Kinds of Argument: Inductive and Deductive, Logic and Deductive argument, Argument and Argument forms, Truth and Validity

Unit 3: The concept of symbol, use of symbol

Symbolic logic and symbol, What is symbol, the difference between symbol and sign, Different types of symbols, symbols used in propositional logic, symbols used in predicate logic, different uses of symbols.

Unit 4: Logical form

Concept of Logical Form, Distinction between Form and Matter, Recognizing the form of an argument, Logical form and the use of symbols, Importance of logical form

Unit 5: Inference and implication

What is implication, Different meanings of material implication, Features of implication, Material implication

Unit 6: Truth functions: Logical constants and Basic truth functions inter•

definition of logical constants

Proposition: Simple and Compound, Variables, Logical constants, the scope of logical constants and the use of brackets, truth function, basic truth functions and their tabular representations, truth tables for basic truth-functions

Unit 7: Truth table method: Testing of statements and Arguments

Truth table method, determining the truth value of compound expressions, basic rules for determining the validity of arguments by truth table method, indirect truth table method or the method of reduction-ad- absurdum

Unit 8: Propositions and its Analysis: Traditional Analysis of Propositions and its dra whacks

Proposition, Structure of proposition, Nature of Copula, Proposition and judgment, Proposition and Sentence, Classification of Proposition, Categorical propositions and classes, Doctrine of Distribution of terms, Reducing sentences to logical forms, Opposition of propositions, Drawbacks of traditional analysis and classification of proposition

Unit 9: Modern classification of propositions: Simple and Compound, Singular &General

Modem Analysis of Proposition, Proposition and Sentence, Modem classification of Proposition, Singular and General Proposition, Comparison between modem and Traditional classification of proposition

Unit 10: Square of opposition of propositions

Existential import of A, E, I and O proposition, Traditional Analysis of Square of Opposition, Modem Analysis of Square of opposition

Unit 11: Propositional logic and predicate logic

Branches of symbolic logic, Development of propositional logic and predicate logic, Propositional logic, Forms of propositional logic, Sentence, proposition and statement, Simple and compound proposition, Logical constant, propositional variable and propositional constant, Truth function, Decision procedure, Formal proof of validity, Predicate logic, Need of predicate logic, Singular and general proposition, Propositional function, Quantifiers, Rules of inference, Difference between propositional logic and predicate logic

Unit 12: Idea of Quantification

Propositional Logic and Predicate Logic, Singular and General Propositions, Propositional Function, Quantification: What it is, Types of Quantifiers, Quantification of Four-Fold Classification of Propositions, Square of Opposition, Proving Validity and Invalidity: Rules of Quantification.

Unit 13: Existential and universal quantifiers

Predicate logic, Symbols used in predicate logic, Quantifiers and types of Quantifiers, Difference between universal quantifier and existential quantifier, Symbolisation of categorical statements with quantifiers, and Scope of quantifier.

Unit 14: The concept of set, set membership, null set

Set Membership, Null Set, Finite and Infinite Set, Subset and Superset, Universal Set Power Set

Unit 15: Operations on sets-Union, Intersection and difference

Union of Sets, Intersection of Sets, Difference of Sets, Complement of a Set

Philosophy B.A Syllabus for  SEMESTER 2



Logic: II Unit 1: Standard form categorical syllogism
Standard form categorical syllogism, Mood, Figure, Venn diagram technique for

testing syllogism

Unit 2: Venn diagram

Categorical proposition and standard form of categorical proposition, Classes and relation, The four standard form of categorical propositions and their class relations, 6 Distribution of terms, Venn diagram, Use of Venn diagram, History, Aristotelian and Boolean standpoint, Symbolism and diagrams for standard form categorical propositions

Unit 3: Venn diagrammatic technique for testing categorical syllogism

The concept of syllogism, kinds of syllogism, standard form of categorical syllogism, Venn-diagram etc
Unit 4: Rules of categorical Syllogism

What is categorical syllogism? Figures and Moods of Syllogism, Standard form categorical syllogism, Rules of Categorical Syllogism

Unit 5: Basic Categorical syllogistic fallacies

Categorical Syllogism, Fallacy of Four Terms, Fallacy of Undistributed Middle, Fallacy of Illicit Major, Fallacy of Illicit Minor

Unit 6: Formal Proof of Validity

Formal Proof of Validity, Strategy for Deduction, Derivation Rules: Rules of Inference, Derivation Rules: Rules of Replacement, Differences between Replacement and Substitution, Differences between Rules of Inference and Rules of Replacement, Test of Formal Proof

Unit 7: Rules of Inference

What is Rules of inference, Nine Rules of Inference, Solved Examples of rules of inference
Unit 8: Rules of replacement

What is Rules of Replacement, Ten Rules of Replacement, Solved Examples of rules of Replacement

Unit 9: Elementary formal deductions by applying these rules

Elementary Formal Deduction, Simple Introductory Deduction, The Strategy for

Constructing Formal Deduction, Certain Examples of Formal deduction

Unit 10: The concept of decision procedure

Decidability, Truth -table method, The Method of Reductio Ad Absurdum or the

Indirect Truth- Table Method, Reduction to Conjunctive Normal Form

Unit 11: The concept of induction

Nature and Characteristics of Inductive Inferences, Stages of Induction, the

Problem of Induction, Kinds of Induction, Inductive Fallacies

Unit 12: Causality: Cause & Conditions, Necessary & Sufficient Conditions, Constant Conjunction

Definition and Meaning of Causality: Aristotle’s View on Causality, Francis Bacon’s Views on Causal Relation, David Hume’s View on Causality, John Stuart Mill’s Analysis of Causality, Cause and Condition, Necessary and Sufficient Condition, Cause and Constant Conjunction

Unit 13: Hypothesis: Kinds and use

What is hypothesis? The purpose and function of hypothesis, Characteristics of a hypothesis, Steps of hypothesis, Kinds of hypothesis, Formulation of hypothesis, Criteria for the formulation of a hypothesis, Conditions for a valid hypothesis, Origin of hypothesis, Verification and proof of hypothesis, Hypothesis and induction, Hypothesis, theory, law and fact, Uses of hypothesis

Unit 14: Analogy

Use of Analogy in Different Contexts, Use of Analogy in Logic: Nature and Structure of Analogical Arguments, Appraisal of Analogical Arguments, Uses of Analogical Arguments, Refutation by Analogy, Upamana: A Source of Knowledge of Similarity

Unit 15: The problem of justification of induction

Problem of induction: Can a demonstrative proof of principle of inductive reasoning be offered? Can the principle of inductive reasoning be justified by inductively? Answers to the problem of induction: Inductive justification of induction: answer to Hume’s objections, Pragmatic justification of induction, Justification by principle of uniformity of nature and law of causation, Dissolution of the problem of induction, Falsifi ability principle

Philosophy B.A Syllabus for SEMESTER 3



Unit: 1 The Nature and Scope of Indian Philosophy

Nature of Indian Philosophy, Scope of Indian Philosophy

Unit: 2 The basic philosophical ideas in the Vedas: Ritam, stages

Of development of theism

Rta, Theism and its various types, Polytheism, Henotheism, Monotheism, Deism, Monism Pantheism, Panentheism. Autotheism

Unit: 3 The Gita’s Idea of Karmayoga

Aparavidya The concept of Gita, Gita’s view on Karmayoga, Interpretation of the concept of Niskana Karma, Nisk ana karma: Metaphysical and Epistemological concept, Pravrtti and Nivrtti, Svadharma, Mokse: The Supreme Goal of Human Life, Gita’s karmayoga and Kant’s Deontological Ethics

Unit: 4 The astika-nastika division of schools of Indian Philosophy

The Astika Schools, The Nastika Schools

Unit: 5 Carvaka: Epistemology

Accidentalism and naturalism, The denial of inference, The denial of the validity of the Vedas
Unit: 6 Carvaka: Metaphysics

Ca-rva-ka: Metaphysics, Ca-rva-ka: Concept of Soul and Consciousness, Ca-rva• ka: Arguments in Favour of Deha-tma-va-da, Criticism against Ca-rva-ka Deha• tma-va-da, Ca-rva-ka: Denial of God’s existence, Ca-rva-ka: Svabha-bava-da, Ca-rva-ka: Denial of Law of Karma and Theory of Rebirth, Ca-rva-ka: Reaction against Liberation

Unit: 7 Buddhism: Four Noble Truths

A Brief Sketch of Buddhism, Concept of Four Noble Truths, There is Suffering, There is a Cause of Suffering, Dependent Origination, The Cessation of Suffering, Concept of Nirva-na, The Path of Cessation of Suffering

Unit 8: Buddhism: Theory of Momentariness

General idea about Buddhism, Concept of Dependent Origination or Pratityasamutpala, Concept of Momentariness or Ksanikavaia, Criticism of Momentariness, Brief account of No-soul theory

Unit: 9 Buddhism: The concept of Nirvana

Brief Outlook on Buddhism, Concept of Four Noble Truths, First Noble Truth, Second Noble Truth, Third Noble Truth, Fourth Noble Truth, Concept of Nirvaja

Unit: 10 Realistic schools of Buddhism: Vaibhasika and Sautrantika Sarvastivada or Vaibhasika, The Dharma Theory, The Doctrine that ‘All Exist’, No-soul Theory
Sautrantika, Theory of Momentariness, Skandhamatratas, Nirvana

Unit: 11 Idealistic Schools of Buddhism: Madyamika or Madhyamaka and


Madhyamaka: Nagarjuna, Unreality of the External World, The Highest Reality, Yogacara Existence of Mere Ideas (vijnaptimatrata), The Store Consciousness (alayavijnana), The Three Kinds of ‘Own Being’ (svabhava)

Unit: 12 Jainism: Syadvada

A brief account of Jainism: Jaina Epistemology, Jaina Metaphysics, Syadvada or

The Sapta-bhangi-naya, Criticism of Syadvada, Let us sum up

Unit: 13 Jainism: Anekantavada

Literal Meaning of Anekantavada, Explanation of change m the context of


Analysing positive and negative characters of an object, Understanding

Anekantavada with a concrete example, Ekantavada

Unit 14: Jainism: Metaphysics

What is Jaina Metaphysics? Two Important Concepts In Jainism, Dravya: Elaborated, Soul or Jiva,, Ajivas -The Inanimate Substance

Unit: 15 Nyaya: Concept of Prama

Definition of prama, Nyaya: Sources of knowledge, Anuman, Inference, Upamana, Testimony


ETIDCS Unit 1: Nature and Scope of Ethics
Definition of Ethics, Nature of Ethics, Scope of Ethics

Unit 2: The Concept of morality

Definition of Morality, The Nature of Morality, Different Moral Concepts, Moral theory

Unit 3: The Nature of Moral Judgment

The Concept and Nature of Moral Judgment, the Subject of Moral Judgment The Object of Moral Judgment, Difference between Moral Judgment and other Unit 4: Fact and Value
What is fact, What is value, Classification of values, Distinction between fact

and value

Unit 5: Moral Concepts: Good, Right, Duty, Virtue Good, Right, Duty, Virtue

Unit 6: Theories of Moral standard: Hedonism

Hedonism in Moral Philosophy, Classification of Hedonistic Theories, Psychological Hedonism

Critical Comments on Psychological Hedonism, Ethical Hedonism, Critical Comments on Ethical Hedonism, Egoistic Ethical Hedonism, Gross Egoistic Ethical Hedonism, Refined Egoistic Ethical Hedonism, Criticism, Altruistic or Universalistic Gross Hedonism: Bentham, Criticism Altruistic or Universalistic Refined Hedonism: J. S. Mill, Criticism

Unit 7: Utilitarianism: Bentham and Mill Utilitarianism

Historical Background of Utilitarianism, Bentham and his Philosophy, Universalistic Hedonism Bentham’s View of Utilitarianism, Principle of Utility is the Basis of Legal and Social reforms Criticism, Mill’s Life and Works, Mill and Hedonism, Mill’s Utilitarianism, Bentham and Mil

Unit 8: Aristotle’s concept of happiness

Aristotle’s Concept of Happiness, Happiness is the highest end of life, happiness and Freedom of will, Aristotle’s Concept of Eudaimonia, Conclusion

Unit 9: Freedom and Determinism

Determinism: Its Meaning, Arguments m Support of Determinism, What is Freedom or Free Will, Arguments In Support of Free Will, Brief Note On Predestination, Fatalism and Scientific Determinism, The Case Of Freedom and Determinism
Unit 10: Teleological ethics and deontological ethics

Normative Ethics and its difference from other three types of ethics, Types of Normative Ethics, Differences between Deontological and Teleological ethics, Critical Evaluation

Unit 11: Purusartha

Artha, Kama, Dharma, Moksa, Four Basic Sciences

Unit 12: Theories of Punishment Notion of Crime and Punishment

Theories of Punishment, Deterrent Theory, Reformative Theory, Retributive

Theory, Capital Punishment

Unit 13: Meta-ethics: Its nature and distinction from normative ethics

What is Meta-ethics, Ethical Naturalism, Ethical Non-Cognitivism, Ethical Non• Naturalism (Intuitionism) , What is Normative ethics? Teleological Ethics, De• ontological Ethics,

Virtue Ethics, Difference between Meta-Ethics and Normative Ethics

Unit 14: Moore: Indefinability of Good

The Indefinability of Good, Simple and Complex Property, Open question argument, Naturalistic Fallacy, Good as Intrinsic Value, Criticism

Unit 15: Emotivist analysis of moral language: Ayer

Ayer’s emotivism, Ayer and the principle of verification,. Evaluating Ayer’s emotivism, Stevenson’s emotivism, Emotivism and moral disagreement

Philosophy B.A Syllabus for SEMESTER 4



Indian Philosophy: II

Unit 1: Vaisesika: Dravya, Guna, Samanya

VaiDes.ika Epistemology, Valid Knowledge, Invalid Knowledge, Kinds of

Categories: What they are? Substance, Quality, Generality,

Unit 2: Vaisesika: Atomism


Meaning of the term ‘Atom’, The four elements/atoms: Earth, Water, Air and fire, Earth, Water, Air, Fire, Ether is not atomic, Vaisesika arguments for the existence of atoms, Creation and Destruction of the world, V aisesika atomism is not materialistic, Vaisesika Atomism and Greek atomism: A comparative study, Critical appreciation of V aisesika atomism

Unit 3: Samkhya: Theory of Causation

Definition of Causation, Theories of Causation in Indian philosophy, Satkaryavada in Samkhya philosophy, Identical nature of Cause and Effect, Criticism of Satkaryavada, Prakrti parinamavada in Samkhya philosophy,

Unit 4: Samkhya: Purusa &Prakrti

Nature and Characteristics of Prakrti, Proofs for the existence of Prakrti, Prakrti and the Gunas, Different products of Prakrti, Teleological Evolution, Criticism of the evolution theory, Nature and Characteristics of Purusa, Proofs for the existence of Purusa, Plurality of Purusa

Unit 5: Yoga: The concept of citta-vritti

Brief Description on Yoga philosophy, Concept of Citta-Vritti, Astaiga Yoga

Unit 6: Yoga: Astanga yoga

Concept of Yoga, Citta and Citta Vr.ttis, The Five kinds of Klesas, Yoga Ethics, Citta bhumi Sama-dhi, Eight Limbs of Yoga (Yoga-n.gas) , Place of God in Yoga Philosophy, Liberation of the Self

Unit 7: Mimamsa: Intrinsic validity of knowledge

Nature of Valid knowledge, Mimamsaka theory of Svatahpramanyavada, Nyaya theory of Paratahpraman yavada, Paratahpraman ya vada and Svatahpramanyavada: A Comparison

Unit 8: Mimamsa: Theory of error- akhyativada and Viparityakhyativada

Nature of Valid Knowledge, Sources of Knowledge, Theories of Error,

Unit 9: Samkara: Brahman and Maya

Avdaita Vedanta, The Concept of Brahman, Nature of Brahman, Svarupalaksana of Brahman. Tatastha Laksana of Brahman, Neti Neti Concept of Brahman, Meaning of Maya, Maya is a fact of experience, The two functions of Maya, Nature of Maya

Unit 10: Samkara’s Grades of Truth and Reality

Reality: What it is, Truth, Reality and its forms, Grades of reality

Unit 11: Ramanuja: God

Ramanuja’s Concept of God, Significance of God, God is qualified (visista), God is Trisatvatmaka, God has internal distinction (Svagata Bheda), Aprthaka sidhi, God is the cause of the world, Ramanuja’s concept of God (Thesim), Forms of God, Archa, Vibhava, Vyuha Susksama Antaryami

Unit 12: Ramanuja: Jiva and World

Three classes of Jiva, Significances of the Jiva, The Jivas are the parts of God, Jiva and God, Jiva and Avidya, The Jiva and Brahman are non-different, Ramanuja’s view of the World, Ramanuja’s concept of prakrti, Difference between the prakrti of Ramanuja and Samkhya, Brahman is the cause of the world, Ramanuja’s view of satkarya vada, The world creation is real according to Ramanuja.

Unit 13: Ramanuja: Concept of liberation

The path of Liberation, The five types of Liberation, Ramanuja believe in

Videhamukti, Significance of Prapatti,

Unit 14: Madhva: Concept of Brahman

Madhva’s concept of Dualism (Dvaita), Concept of Brahman, Significance of Brahman or God God is qualified (Saguna), God is the cause of the world, God is the ultimate governor of the Jiva, God is said to be indescribable, Brahman is the supreme God, God has four manifestation Laksmi is the consort of God, God is full of grace,. The Panca Bheda Sidhanta ofMadhva,
Pluralistic theism, Madhva’ s God is realistic

Unit 15: Sankardeva: Concept of Bhakti, relation between God and Man

Concept of Bhakti, Nine modes of bhakti, Essential nature of a devotee or

‘bhakta’, Three grades of bhakti, Concept of God, Relation between man and

God, Grace of God and Man



Unit 1: Philosophy of Religion: Its nature and scope

Nature of philosophy of religion, Different philosophical approaches, Distinguish philosophy of religion and science of religion, Philosophy of religion and psychology of religion, Scope of philosophy of religion

Unit 2: Nature of religion, dimensions of Religion Meaning of Religion

Nature of Religion, Religion and Morality, Religion and Art, Religion and

Science Religion and Philosophy, Dimensions of Religion

Unit 3: Religion, Philosophy and Science Religion and philosophy

Philosophy of religion and philosophy, Religion and science, Science of religion Philosophy of religion and science of religion, Religion, philosophy and science Inter-relation of religion, philosophy and science in India

Unit 4: Religious Consciousness General meaning of conciousness

Characteristics of consciousness, Religious consciousness, Rudolf Otto on religious consciousness, Difference between religion, consciousness and religious consciousness

Unit 5: Theories of the origin of religion: Anthropological theories

Need of anthropological theories, The animistic theory of E. B. Tylor, The ancestor-worship theory of Herbert Spencer, Totemism, Manaism as the origin of religion, Manaism as the satisfactory theory of the origin of religion, Taboo, Psychological theoriesReligious instinct theory, Single elemental emotion theory, Religious faculty theory

Unit 6: Freudian theory of origin of religion

Freud’s life and works: general background, Psychoanalysis and religion, Freud’s theory about the origin of religion, Oedipus complex, Critical Comments,

Unit 7: Revelation and faith, spirituality

Revelation in Christian Faith, Faith, Natural theology and revealed theology, Different ways of revelation, Revelation in Indian tradition, Spirituality, its definition and features.

Unit 8: Some basic tenets of Christianity

Christianity and its development, Christianity and its fundamental

Characteristics Christianity and the concept of Trinity

Unit 9: Islam: Five pillars

The salient features of Islam, Five pillars of Islam

Unit 10: Hinduism:

God, man, liberation

Unit 11: The Problem of Evil

What is evil? The Basic Problem, The Existence of Evil, “Evil”: different views

Why do Evil and Suffering Exist?

Unit 12: Proofs for the existence of God: Causal and teleological

The Causal Argument/ The First Cause/ Cosmological Argument, Criticism of Causal Argument, The teleological argument for the existence of God, Criticism of teleological proofs for the existence of God

Unit 13: Proofs for the existence of God: Ontological and moral

Ontological Argument, Criticism of Ontological Argument, The moral argument for the existence of God, Criticism of Moral Argument

Unit 14: Symbolic nature of religious language

The problem of religious language, Various approaches to the problem of religious language, Symbolic nature of religious language

Unit 15: Essential unity of all religion

The importance of the unity of all religion, Different meanings of the term “Unity of all religions” Hinduism and unity of all religions, Gandhi on unity of all religions, Dr. S. Radhakrishnan’ s concept of spiritual religion

Philosophy B.A Syllabus for SEMESTER 5



Unit 1: Nature of Metaphysics

What is metaphysics, Philosophy and Metaphysics, Is Metaphysics Possible?

Unit 2: Space and Time: Kant

Space and time: A Priori Percepts, Metaphysical Exposition of Space and Time, Transcendental Exposition of Space and Time
Unit 3: Realism: Naive and Scientific

Meaning of realism, Kinds of Realism, Naive or Direct realism, Criticism of

Naive realism, scientific realism, Criticism of Scientific realism

Unit 4: Neo-realism

What is Neo-realism, Neo-realism as a metaphysical theory, Criticism of Neo•


Unit 5: Subjective Idealism: Berkeley

What is Subjective idealism, Subjective idealism of Berkeley, Criticism, Is

Subjective idealism subjective or objective?

Unit 6: Objective Idealism: Hegel

What is objective idealism, Objective idealism of Hegel Unit 7: Mind-Body relation: Interactionism (Descartes) Theory of Interactionism, Is it satisfactory?
Unit 8: Mind-Body relation: Double aspect theory (Spinoza) What is double aspect theory, Critical Estimate of this theory Unit 9: Anti-Metaphysics: Kant
Meaning of Metaphysics for Kant, concept of Anti-Metaphysics

Unit 10: The Problem of Personal identity: Locke and Hume

Bodily criterion, Memory criterion, Jean Paul Sartre’s viewpoint on Self•

identity, Critical appreciation

Unit 11: The Concept of Person: Strawson

What is the concept of person, Strawson on No-ownership theory, Strawson on Cartesianism, Strawson’s distinction between P and M predicates, Strawson’s views on P-predicates, Bernard Williams view on Strawson’s concept of P• predicates
Unit 12: The Nature of Values

Meaning of Value, Judgment of fact and Judgment of value, Are values subjective and objective, Extrinsic and Intrinsic values, value and reality
Unit 13: Universals: Realism (Plato and Aristotle)

Universal: It’s nature and theories, Realism, Plato’s realism, Aristotle’s realism

Unit 14: Universals: Nominalism (Hobbes and Hume) Nominalism: What this theory says, Hobbes’ view, Hume’s View Unit 15: Appearance and Reality: Bradley
What is an appearance, the realm of appearance, The Absolute as the criterion of reality, Degrees of Reality

Paper: 8


Unit 1: Epistemology: Nature and Scope

Meaning of Epistemology, Scope of Epistemology, Epistemology and

Philosophy, Epistemology and Metaphysics

Unit 2: Philosophical Methods: Descartes and Kant

Mathematical or Rational Method of Descartes, Critical method of Kant

Unit 3: Nature and Kinds of Knowledge: ‘knowing that’ and ‘knowing how’ (Ryle)
Unit 4: Nature and Kinds of Knowledge:

‘Knowledge by acquaintance’ and ‘Knowledge by Description’ (Russell)

Unit 5: Gettier’s problem

Introduction, Knowledge, Anaysing of the Gettier’s Problem

Unit 6: Distinction between a priori and a posteriori knowledge

Meaning of A priori knowledge, meaning of A posteriori knowledge, Distinction between the true
Unit 7: Theory of Knowledge: Rationalism

Origin and Sources of Knowledge, Theories of Knowledge, Rationalism, Crticism
Unit 8: Theory of Knowledge: Empiricism

Empiricism: A theory of the origin of knowledge, Criticism

Unit 9: Scepticism (Hume)

Hume’s view on Empiricism, Is Hume a Sceptic?

Unit 10: Criticism (Kant)

Kant’s critical theory of the origin of Knowledge, Criticism

Unit 11: Correspondence theory of truth

What is truth in philosophy? Different theories of truth, Correspondence theory of truth, Criticism
Unit 12: Coherence theory of truth

Coherence theory of truth, Criticism Unit 13: Pragmatic theory of truth Pragmatic theory of truth, Criticism

Unit 14: The Referential theory of Meaning

What is semantics in Philosophy? Referential theory of meaning: Russell, Critical Appreciation, Picture theory of meaning: Early Wittgenstein, Critical Appreciation
Unit 15: Verification theory of meaning

What is logical positivism? Supporters of logical positivism, Verification theory of meaning, elimination of metaphysics, critical appreciation


Greek and Medieval Philosophy

Unit 1: The Problem of Substance of Thales

Inonic school, Thales View on Subsatnce

Unit 2: The Problem of Change (Heraclitus)

The Problem of Change: Heraclitus

Unit 3: The Concept of Being (Parmenides)

The Concept of Being: Parmenides, The importance of Parmenides

Unit 4: The Paradoxes of Zeno

Arguments of Zeno, Criticism of Zeno’s arguments

Unit 5: Democritus: Atomism

The Atomistic philosophy, Historical background, Democritus Atomism

Unit 6: Socrates: Virtue and knowledge

Theory of Concepts, Virtue and Knowledge, the importance of Socrates

Unit 7: Plato: Theory of Knowledge

Plato’s theory of knowledge- knowledge is not perception, knowledge is not opinion, Critical evaluation

Unit 8: Plato: Doctrine of Ideas

Plato’s theory of Ideas- the characteristics if Ideas, the system of Ideas, the idea of Good
Unit 9: Aristotle: Relation between form and matter

The philosophy of Aristotle, Form and Matter: Aristotle, potentiality and


Unit 10: Aristotle:

Theory of Causation

Unit 11: Augustine: Problem of Evil

Augustine’s view on theology, the doctrine of man, the problem of evil

Unit 12: Augustine: Theory of knowledge Augustine’s theory of knowledge- the nature of Trinity Unit 13: Anslem: Proof for the existence of God
Anslem’s Ontological proof for the existence of God, A Critical evaluation

Unit 14: St. Thomas Aquinas: Theory of knowledge

Philosophy and Theology, Theory of Knowledge

Unit 15: Acquinas’ analogical theory of religious language

Acquinas analogical proof for the existence of God, Analogical knowledge of what God is

Paper: 10

Modern Western Philosophy

Unit 1: Historical background of western philosophy and the

Characteristics of modern philosophy

Historical background of Western Philosophy, Characteristics of modem philosophy

Unit 2: Descartes: Cogito-ergo sum

The Method of Descartes, Cogito Ergo Sum, Critical Comment on Cogito Ergo

Sum, Importance of the Cogito

Unit 3: Spinoza: The doctrine of Substance

The Doctrine of Substance-Implications of the doctrine of Substance, Attributes, Modes
Unit 4: Leibnitz: Monadology

Monadology of Leibnitz, the doctrine of Monads, Characteristics of Monads, Kinds of Monads
Unit 5: Leibnitz: Pre-established harmony

Principle of Harmony, God the creator of Harmony, Pre-established Harmony, Criticism of Pre-established Harmony
Unit 6: Locke: Criticism of innate ideas, classification of ideas

Locke’s refutation of Innate ideas, Meaning and nature of ideas, kinds of ideas

Unit 7: Berkeley: Esse est percipii

Subjective idealism of Berkeley, Berkley’s dictum Esse est percipu, fundamental elements in Berkeley’s dictum Esse est percipii, Criticism of Berkeley’s dictum Esse est percipii
Unit 8: Hume: Impressions and Ideas

Impressions and Ideas: Hume, the idea of Cause

Unit 9: Hume: Scepticism

Kinds of Meaningful Propositions and Knowledge, Belief in the existence of the external world, Is Hume Sceptic?
Unit 10: Kant on sensibility

Kant’s theory of Knowledge: A brief account, three faculties in the process of knowledge-the faculty of sensibility, the faculty of understanding, the faculty of reasonmg

Unit 11: Kant on understanding

Kant: the faculty of understanding, Discovery of pure concepts, Understanding makes nature
Unit 12: Kant: The Possibility of Synthetic apriori judgments

Analytic and Synthetic judgments, the problem of synthetic judgments a priori, synthetic judgments a priori in Mathematics, synthetic judgments a priori in Physics, synthetic judgments a priori in Metaphysics, A Critical evaluation
Unit 13: Kant: Transcendental deduction of categories apriori

What is Category? Transcendental deduction of categories apriori, Importance of

Transcendental deduction

Unit 14: Hegel: Dialectical method

Hegel’s monism: A brief discussion, Dialectical Method of Hegel, An appraisal of dialectic method
Unit 15: Bradley: Thought and Reality

The idealism of Bradley, Thought and Reality- Terms and Relations, Relation: External and Internal

Philosophy B.A Syllabus for SEMESTER 6


Contemporary Western Philosophy

Unit 1: Frege: The semantic distinction between Sense and


The Concept of meaning, Frege’s distinction between sense and reference, A

critical evaluation

Unit 2: Development of analytic philosophy

What is Analytic Philosophy, Philosophical Analysis of language, Background of Analytic Philosophy, Analytic Philosophy after Wittgenstein?
Unit 3: Russell: Logical atomism

Types of Language Analysis, Biography of Russell, Theory of Descriptions, Atomism: Its meaning, Logic as a tool of Philosophy, Isomorphism, Facts and Propositions, Sense data
Unit 4: Russell: Definite descriptions

Method of Analysis, Facts and Things, Russell’s Definite Descriptions

Unit 5: Moore: Refutation of idealism

G.E. Moore’s Idealism, Refutation of Idealism, Moore’s Criticism on Absolute

Idealism, Crtiticism

Unit 6: Moore: Defense of common sense

Defense of Common sense, commonsense belief as truism, Physical facts independent from mental facts, denial of the existence of God, Immortality of Soul, Analysing common sense belief, Other mind, Criticism
Unit 7: Wittgenstein: Picture theory of meaning

Wittgenstein’s early technique of analysis, Picture theory of meaning

Unit 8: Wittgenstein: language games

Critique of early analysis of language, Language games

Unit 9: Salient features of existentialism

What is existentialism, features of existentialism

Unit 10: Kierkegaard: Three stages of life

A short biography of Kierkegaard, Three stages of life

Unit 11: Nietzsche: Concept of morality

A short biography of Nietzsche, Concept of morality

Unit 12: Sartre: Essence and existence

What is existentialism, Existence Precedes Essence, Subjectivity against obj ecti vi ty
Unit 13: Sartre: Freedom

Freedom and Determinism, Consciousness as nothingness or Freedom, Human reality redefined, A Critical appraisal
Unit 14: Ryle: Dispositional theory of mind

Gilbert Ryle: A Short Introduction, Dispositional theory of mind, Criticism

Unit 15: Austin: Speech act theory

Austin: A Short Introduction, Speech act theory- constatives and performative utterance, grammatical criterion, three types of speech acts



Unit 1: B.G. Tilak: Interpretation of the Gita

B.G. Tilak: A short introduction, B.G. Tilak’s interpretation of the Gita

Unit 2: R.N. Tagore: Humanism

Humanism: What it is, Tagore’s Humanistic Attitude, Bond of Humanity and nature, Desire to serve God through Mankind, Religion is the Foundation of Humanity, Love and Sacrifice: An Integral Part of Humanity, Service to Humanity: Source of Salvation, Humanity is greater than Community
Unit 3: Vivekananda: Practical Vedanta

Main tenets of Vivekananda’s philosophical thought, the concept of Practical

Vedanta, four yogas to attain freedom

Unit 4: Gandhi: Religion

What is religion, the way of religion, attitude towards living religions, attitude towards Hinduism, Religion and Morality
Unit 5: Gandhi: Truth & Non-violence

God and Truth, Truth is God, Non-violence, the technique of ahimsa: Satyagraha, Philosophy on end and means
Unit 6: Gandhi: Trusteeship

Economic basis of society, Trusteeship: What is, Definition of trustee, origin of

Trusteeship, Trusteeship and Modern world,

Unit 7: Aurobindo: Supermind

The concept of Supermind, the triple status of the Supermind, the triple transformation, Gnostic Being and Devine life
Unit 8: Aurobindo: Evolution

The Pure existent, the consciousness force, the delight of existence: Bliss, Nature of Creation, the World Process: descent or involution, Maya and lila, Ascent or Evolution
Unit 9: K.C. Bhattacharyya: Concept of Philosophy

Concept of philosophy, theoretic consciousness and its four grades, theory of knowledge, Negation as the basis of philosophy
Unit 10: Radhakrishnan: The Absolute

Meaning of the term Absolute, Radhakrishnan’ s concept of Absolute, Hegel and Radhakrishnan, Bradley and Radhakrishnan, Sankara and Radhakrishnan, Ramanuja and Radhakrishnana
Unit 11: Radhakrishnan: Intellect & Intuition

Different ways of Knowing, Nature of Intellect, Radhakrishnan’s Critique of

Intellect, Nature of Intuition, Different senses of Intution,

Unit 12: Ambedkar: Neo-Buddhism

Neo-Buddhism: A Dynamic force, A religious movement, A catalyst for the well being of the downtrodden, Neo-Buddhism: Gandhi Vis-a-vis Ambedkar, the ethico-ritualistic dimension of Neo-Buddhism
Unit 13: J. Krishnamurthy: Freedom from the Known

Freedom, Self and Self-knowledge, Education

Unit 14: Daya Krishna’s three conception of Indian Philosophy

Daya Krishna: Biography, Philosophy, Scepticism, Three conceptions of Indian Philosophy, Potter’s view, K.C. Bhattacharyya’s view, Observation from Dayakrishnan’s perspective
Unit 15: J.N. Mohanty: Concept of knowledge

J.N. Mohanty: A Short Biography, Descriptive philosophy, Concept of knowledge.


Social and Political Philosophy

Unit 1: Origin and Development of society

Emergence of society, different theories of the origin of society: An overview, Different thinkers views on its development
Unit 2: Social Contract theory: Hobbes

Hobbes Views on Human Nature, Social Contract theory, Criticism

Unit 3: Social Contract theory: Locke

Locke’s views on Human Nature, Social Contract theory, Criticism

Unit 4: Social Contract theory: Rousseau

Rousseau’s views on Human Nature, Social Contract theory, Rousseau on general will, Criticism

Unit 5: Social Institutions Family, Education, Religion Unit 6: Individual and Society
Social contract theory, Criticism of Social contract theory, Organic theory,

Criticism of organic theory, Criticism of Organic theory, Group mind theory, A Contemporary debate on Individual and Society
Unit 7: Rights and Duties

Meaning, Types of Rights and Duties, Relationship between Rights and Duties

Unit 8: Terrorism

Meaning and Definition of Terrorism, Different analysis of Terrorism, Characteristics of Terrorism, Difference between terrorists and Freedom fighters Unit 9: The Concept of Globalisation
Definitions of globalization, Characteristics of globalization, Different views of

globalization, Utility of globalization, criticisms of globalization

Unit 10: Feminism:

Fundamental features (Simone de Beouvoir)

Unit 11: Marxism: Alienation, Class struggle

Marx’s views on Alienation and Class struggle, Stages of Human History

Unit 12: Socialism

Meaning and Definition of Socialism, Nature of Socialism, Kinds of Socialism, Merits and Demerits of Socialism
Unit 13: Secularism: Its nature, secularism in India

What is secularism, Views’ on Secularism, Thought on Secularism, Different models of secularism, Secularism in India, Constitution, Secularism and Religion in India

Unit 14: Plato: Concept of Ideal State

What is ideal state of Plato, Three classes of Citizens in the state, Concept of

Education, Theories of Government

Unit 15: John Rawls: Justice as fairness

John Rawls: A Short Biography, What is justice, Just Distribution, John Rawls theory of justice as fairness, Criticism


Unit 1: The Concept of Applied Ethics

Concept of Ethics, Areas of Ethics, Nature of Applied Ethics, Applied Ethics and Philosophy, Applied Ethics and Ethics, Applied Ethics and Applied Philosophy, Different fields of Applied Ethics, Three important theories associated with Applied Ethics, Some important principles on Applied ethical discussion
Unit 2: Environmental Ethics: Intrinsic worth of Nature, deep ecology Emergence of environmental ethics, Perspectives on environmental ethics, Anthropocentrism, Non-anthropocentrism, Bio-centrism, Eco-centrism, Criticisms, Environmental pragmatism
Unit 3: Bio-ethics

What is bio-ethics, different branches of bio-ethics, Genetic engineering and its moral implications
Unit 4: Media ethics: Truthfulness and dissemination of information

Media and Importance of Ethics, Media code of Ethics, Common elements of Media code of Ethics, Plagiarism, Compliance of Ethical standards, Right of Reply

Unit 5: Capital Punishment

Theories of punishment, Preventive theory, Reformative theory, Retributive theory, What is capital punishment, Philosophers’ view on the issue, Debate on Capital Punishment, Is capital punishment justified? Reformists’ view, Challenge to reformists’ view, Relevance of the debate, Capital punishment in India, Right to live argument
Unit 6: Human rights

Meaning of Human rights, Characteristics, Types, Evolution

Unit 7: Animal rights (Peter Singer & Tom Regan)

Meaning and Definition of Animal rights, Consequences of animal rights, the case for animal rights and against of animal rights, Moral community, Problems of Marginal people.
Unit 8: Abortion

Meaning and definition of ‘abortion’, different factors associated with the issue, Socio-religious aspect, ethical analysis, technology and ethics.
Unit 9: Suicide

Characteristics of suicide, highlights on historical western thought, ancient and classical views on suicide, enlightenment and modem developments, the morality and rationality of suicide, moral permissibility, religious arguments, libertarian views and rights to suicide, social and role-based arguments.
Unit 10: Euthanasia

Euthanasia: What it is, Medical definition of Euthanasia, Kinds of Euthanasia, Historical Background, Early Modern Period, Early Euthanasia Movement in the United States, Euthanasia Debate, Legal Status, Quality of life principle versus Sanctity of life principle, Euthanasia and Conventional Ethical Values, Active euthanasia and passive Euthanasia.

Unit 11: Feminist ethics: Rights of Women

Meaning and definition of feminism, care ethics, different views of thinkers on this issue
Unit 12: Concepts of justice and equality

Meaning of justice and equality, relation between the two, Different thinkers views’ on justice and equality.
Unit 13: Ecological ethics: Vedic, Jaina, and Buddha Views

Meaning and definition of ecological ethics, different views’ of Vedic, Jaina, and Bauddha on ecological ethics
Unit 14: Ecological ethics: Christianity and Islam

Concept of ecological ethics in Christianity, Concept of ecological ethics in

Islam, Similarities and its Differences

Unit 15: War and its moral implications

Concept of war, arguments in favour of war, arguments against the war, whether war is morally justified: A discussion

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